Leeds Parish, covering much of Northern and Central Fauquier County, was established in 1769 by action of the Virginia House of Burgesses and has been in continuous existence since then. The name of the new parish was taken from Leeds Castle in England, the birthplace of Lord Fairfax, whose colonial estates encompassed most of the new Church of England (Anglican) parish. Formal ratification of the parish occurred in December of 1769, and worship services began immediately.
During the colonial period, many of the Anglican clergy in Virginia and elsewhere were loyal to the English crown, so when the American Revolution occurred they left their parishes. Leeds Church was represented at the first convention of the Diocese of Virginia in 1785.
In its early years, the Leeds Parish worship services were held in private homes and a number of wooden church buildings. In 1842, the present church sanctuary was built of brick and stucco in the early Gothic revival style, and was consecrated by Bishop William Meade.